br Conclusions br We can
We can conclude that Calcipotriol the increased levels of serum 8-OHdG in patients with BC compared with patients with benign lesions and healthy controls may have a significant effect on BC development and might help as a potential biomarker for assessing individuals with high risk of BC. 8-OHdG could be used as a confirmatory and/or surrogate marker for BC. This could decrease false-positives or false-negatives during BC diagnosis. The increasing levels of 8-OHdG with other routine biomarkers could be considered as a promising discriminatory biomarker of early detection and diagnosis of malignant of BC and assist in distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. However, a large sample size from different stages and types of BC should be included in any future study to confirm
the present results before translating the findings into routine clinical application.
Clinical Practice Points
One of the most prominent product of oxidative DNA damage is 8-OHdG, which was recently used as a reliable and sensitive marker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis, and was found in high levels in the biological fluids of several patients with cancer. The levels of 8-OHdG were high in the BC group compared with the benign lesion and healthy control groups.
Our study observed a significant gradual decrease in the 8-OHdG levels in invasive BC stages from stage I to stage IV, whereas no significant differences were observed in CA15-3 and
CEA levels. The levels of 8-OHdG, CA15-3, and CEA were significantly higher in patients with BC who were HER2þ. No difference in the levels of these parameters in patients with BC who were ERþ and PRþ.
The increasing levels of 8-OHdG with other routine biomarkers could be considered as a promising discriminatory biomarker of early detection and diagnosis of malignant BC and assist in
distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. Our result might be helpful in confirmation of an HER2þ test, thus can determine which patients may get benefit from HER2-targeted therapy such as trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), pertuzu-
mab (Perjeta), and T-DM1 (Kadcyla). These targeted treatments can improve the survival rate in patients with HER2þ invasive BC. The average level of 8-OHdG is slightly higher in patients with BC who were HER . This could be used to aid the tar-geting therapy when using estrogen-targeting drugs such as tamoxifen and/or aromatase inhibitors in patients with BC.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Institute of Scientific Research and Revival of Islamic Heritage at Umm Al-Qura Uni-versity (Project No. 43409056) for the financial support.
The authors also extend thanks to the members of the oncology unit of King Abdallah Medical City in Makkah who helped us in examining our sample individuals and collecting data for this research.
The authors have stated that they have no conflicts of interest.
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